Download e-book for iPad: A Century of Submarines by Peter Lawrence

By Peter Lawrence

The 1st submarines to be commissioned via the British Admiralty have been 5 Holland type boats in 1900. Arriving in 1901, they heralded a brand new age of naval battle. although, because of naval rivalries and hierarchies and an institutional misinterpretation of submarine strategies and method, the British submarine carrier took many years to develop. the 1st global battle observed German good fortune with U-Boat battle however the British reaction was once extra creative than potent - it integrated feasibility reviews into the employment of sea lions and gulls to defeat the underwater risk. complete realisation of the submarines combating services didn't come till the second one international battle. the appearance of sonar, radar and the applying of air energy replaced either the instruments and strategies of battle. within the post-war interval submarines went nuclear and performed a pivotal function within the stratagems of the chilly struggle. This an expert and passionate account of submarine heritage is complimented by way of approximately two hundred illustrations, from the crude beginnings to the hugely technological current, and may attract these drawn to the strategies and politics of conflict in addition to people with a consultant curiosity within the submarine.

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There was a growing perception that the provision of musical supplies to the expanding and affluent European population of India represented a first-class business opportunity, and there was no shortage of entrepreneurs willing to take on the challenge. It is hard to be certain how many instruments were imported overall. The newspapers ran advertisements for large consignments of musical supplies from an average of six to eight ships a year, sometimes more. The number of keyboard instruments per ship can hardly have been less than five or six, which gives a range of about forty to sixty instruments entering Calcutta every year.

In the early s, harpsichords were still regularly advertised, perhaps because India was seen as a convenient market for the now nearly redundant instrument, but by the end of the decade, they were rapidly disappearing. The most highly-prized keyboard instruments in India were now undoubtedly grand pianos, which, by the end of the decade, were being advertised regularly in the Calcutta Gazette:  January   May   August   March   March  A Grand Piano Forte, with additional keys by Ganer.

The ubiquitous pairs of horns are found throughout, but there is a very marked increase in the number of oboes in the s, and clarinets are found only in the latter decade. The formation of full wind bands lies behind these changes. The only other popular recreational instrument was the  | Supplying the Market guitar/English guitar. Ownership of non-Western instruments was minimal; only a ‘Bengal fiddle’ seems an unambiguous example. If the s represent the Calcutta music market in a period of vigorous growth, the s represent a consolidation.

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