Download PDF by Frederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy, Volume 3: Late Medieval and

By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the advance of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A heritage Of Philosophy has journeyed some distance past the modest objective of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible background of philosophy in English.
Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of gigantic erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the life of God and the potential for metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient vitamin of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with so much of history's nice thinkers used to be decreased to simplistic caricatures. Copleston got down to redress the incorrect through writing a whole background of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and highbrow pleasure -- and person who supplies complete position to every philosopher, providing his concept in a fantastically rounded demeanour and displaying his hyperlinks to people who went prior to and to people who got here after him.
The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a background of philosophy that's not likely ever to be handed. concept journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike whilst it reviewed Copleston's A heritage of Philosophy as "broad-minded and target, entire and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we won't suggest [it] too highly."

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Additional resources for A History of Philosophy, Volume 3: Late Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy: Ockham, Francis Bacon, and the Beginning of the Modern World

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Y. and E. Nauwelaerts. Louvain. Pars p,·jma. 1951. I Edited by P. M. • 1951. 54 OCKHAM (2) THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY reality and have a meaning even when they stand by themselves. These terms ('butter', for instance) are called categorematic terms. Other terms, however, like 'no' and 'every' acquire a definite reference only when standing in relation to categorematic terms, as in the phrases 'no man' and 'every house'. These are called syncategorematic terms. Again, some terms are absolute, in the sense that they signify a thing without reference to any other thing, while other terms are called connotative terms, because, like 'son' or 'father', they signify an object considered only in relation to some other thing.

To say this is to say that God produces in us intuitive knowledge of the stars by means of a secondary cause, namely the stars themselves. On Ockham's principle, then, God could produce this intuition directly, without the secondary cause. He could not do this if it 1 Quodlibet, I. 14. , 15, E. I Quodlibet, I, 13. , 6, 6. would involve a contradiction; but it would not involve a contradiction. 'l (ii) But God could not produce in us evident knowledge of the proposition that the stars are present when they are not present; for the inclusion of the word 'evident' implies that the stars really are present.

But, though Ockham enumerates four causes in the traditional manner and though he does not reject the validity of causal argument, his analysis of efficient causality has a marked 'empiricist' colouring.

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