By Robert Shenk
Drawing seriously on formerly unknown resources, Robert Shenk bargains a revealing portrait of America's small Black Sea Fleet within the years following global battle I. Home-ported in Constantinople, army ships sped to the Crimea to assist evacuate a few 150,000 White Russians, after which coordinated the grain shipments that ended a bad Russian famine. The fleet's successes in evacuating approximately 200,000 ethnic Armenian and Greek refugees from Smyrna and in rescuing tens of hundreds of thousands from mainland Turkey also are special in complete. Shenk's incisive depiction of Admiral Mark Bristol as either head of U.S. naval forces and the US s leader diplomat within the zone William Leahy, Thomas Kinkaid, Julian Wheeler, and diplomat Allen Dulles served lower than him support to make this e-book the first-ever finished account of a necessary, yet little-known naval venture.
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Extra info for America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919-1923
The Ark Royal, escorted by the Nelson and other units of the Home Fleet, arrived at a position 170 miles off Trondheim. At midnight fifteen Skuas took off for the attack. Long-range Coastal Command Blenheims provided fighter cover over the objective, while Beauforts of the same Command created a diversion by attacking the nearby aerodrome at Vaernes in order to prevent, if they could, German fighters from taking off to engage the Skuas. At that time of the year and in that latitude, daylight is perpetual.
This hit destroyed two Swordfish being prepared for flight and the hole in the flight deck prevented any other aircraft from taking off. Splinters penetrated a boiler casing and caused a temporary drop in steam pressure. Scharnhorst opened fire on Ardent at 4:27 at a range about 16,000 yards, causing the destroyer to withdraw, firing torpedoes and making a smoke screen. 7-inch guns on Scharnhorst but was hit several times by the German ships' secondary armament and sank about 5:25. While this tragedy was happening, Acasta steamed at speed to lay a smoke screen round the Glorious to hide her from the enemy cruisers and obscure their target.
Later in the day twelve Blenheims flew in two formations at different heights to Stavanger airfield. The high-flying formation dropped their bombs ten seconds before those flying at a lower level went in to the attack. By keeping formation they drove off repeated attacks by enemy fighters, though two, which became stragglers, were cut off and shot down. That night twenty Wellingtons and Whitleys were sent to bomb Stavanger, Trondheim (Vaernes) and Oslo airfields. Eleven Wellingtons bombed at Stavanger but other targets were not located.