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By Jennifer Wright Knust, Zsuzsanna Varhelyi

Analyzing the varied spiritual texts and practices of the past due Hellenistic and Roman classes, this selection of essays investigates the numerous meanings and capabilities of formality sacrifice within the historical international. The essays survey sacrificial acts, historic theories, and literary in addition to inventive depictions of sacrifice, exhibiting that any try and determine a unmarried underlying importance of sacrifice is futile. Sacrifice can't be outlined purely as a primal expression of violence, regardless of the common equation of sacrifice to faith and sacrifice to violence in lots of smooth scholarly works; neither is it adequate to argue that each one sacrifice will be defined through guilt, via the necessity to organize and distribute animal flesh, or via the communal functionality of either the sacrificial ritual and the meal. because the authors of those essays reveal, sacrifice might be invested with all of those meanings, or none of them. The killing of the animal, for instance, may perhaps ensue offstage instead of in sight, and the sensible, daily regimen of plant and animal choices could have been invested with which means, too. but sacrificial acts, or discourses approximately those acts, did provide a massive web site of contestation for plenty of historical writers, even if the religions they have been protecting not participated in sacrifice. Negotiations over the that means of sacrifice remained important to the aggressive machinations of the literate elite, and their refined theological arguments didn't lots undermine sacrificial perform as proceed to imagine its crucial validity. old Mediterranean Sacrifice deals new perception into the connections and alterations one of the Greek and Roman, Jewish and Christian religions.

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Evans-Pritchard, Theories of Primitive Religion (Oxford: Clarendon, 1965), 51–52. 22. Hubert and Mauss, Sacrifice, 6. 23. Hubert and Mauss, Sacrifice, 97. 24. Durkheim, Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse (1912), translated by Joseph Ward Swain, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (New York: Free Press, 1965), 377–92. 4 (2001): 352–80. As Frankfurter points out, Durkheim depicted primitive ritual as representative of the “orgiastic and sexually amoral degrees to which human groups in their primal state might bring themselves during ritual events” (367).

Gilders, Blood Ritual in the Hebrew Bible, 186–91. 77. David Biale, Blood and Belief: The Circulation of a Symbol between Jews and Christians (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 9–14. Though deeply appreciative of Klawans’s work, Gilders has nevertheless expressed objections to Klawans’s focus on the symbolic or metaphorical meaning of Israelite sacrifice. See his review of Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 69 (2007): 784–85. 78. , Anchor Bible 3–3b (New York: Doubleday, 1992–2001).

Larry Yarbrough (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995), 293–333, at 298. 62. Stowers, “Greeks Who Sacrifice,” 311. 63. Stowers, “Greeks Who Sacrifice,” 331–32. 64. 2 (1993–1994): 109–30; Leviticus as Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). 65. Douglas, Purity and Danger, 3–4. 66. Douglas, Purity and Danger, 29–40. 67. Douglas, Purity and Danger, 57. 68. Douglas, Leviticus as Literature, 66–86. For an alternative and yet related point of view, see Naphtali S. Meschel, “Pure, Impure, Permitted, Prohibited: A Study of Classification Systems in P,” in Perspectives on Purity and Purification in the Bible, edited by Baruch Schwartz and David P.

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